The composition of blood
Left to right: eritrotsit, trombotsit and leykotsit (T-limfotsit). Snapshot scanning electron microscope
Blood consists of two main components - plasma and suspended its uniforms items.
Plasma blood contains water and dissolved substances in it - proteins and other organic and mineral compounds. The main plasma proteins are albumin, globulin and fibrinogen. In blood plasma solution also nutrients (in particular, glucose and lipids), hormones, vitamins, enzymes and intermediate and final products of metabolism, as well as inorganic ions.
Uniforms elements represented blood erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes:
* The red blood cells (erythrocytes) - the largest elements of the uniforms. Mature erythrocytes contain no nucleus and have a characteristic shape biconcave discs. In erythrocytes contain iron containing protein - hemoglobin, which provides the primary function of erythrocytes - transport of gases, primarily - oxygen. It attaches to hemoglobin blood characteristic red colour. In light hemoglobin binds oxygen, becoming oxyhemoglobin, he has a light red color. In the tissues of oxygen is released connection, again formed hemoglobin, the blood and darker. In addition to oxygen, hemoglobin in the form of transfers from karbogemoglobina tissue in the lungs and a small amount of carbon dioxide.
* Krovyanye plate (thrombocytes) are limited cell membrane fragments cytoplasm giant bone marrow cells megakariotsitov. Together with blood plasma proteins (such as fibrinogenom) they provide a drawdown of blood flowing from the damaged vessel, leading to stop bleeding and thereby protecting the body from dangerous to the life blood loss.
* White blood cells (leucocytes) are part of the immune system. All of them are able to exit from the blood into the tissue bed. The main function of leukocytes - protection. They are involved in immune response, produce antibodies, as well as bind and destroy harmful agents. In normal leukocytes in the blood far less than other uniform items.
The blood belongs to quickly update tissues. Physiological regeneration uniforms elements of blood at the expense of the destruction of old cells and the formation of new blood bodies. Chief among them in humans and other mammals is the bone marrow. In humans red, or hemopoietic, bone marrow is located mostly in the pelvic bones and in the long tubular bones.